Versión española

Esperanto Course in Eight Lessons

by Jesuo de las Heras

  1. Lesson: Introduction. Remark. General Rules Abc. Prononciation. The sound of it. The article. Plural
  2. Lesson: Nouns, adjectives, adverbs. Personal pronouns . Possessives.
  3. Lesson: Verbs. Verb endings.
  4. Lesson: Simple voices.. Numbers. The Accusative.
  5. Lesson: Word composition. Prefix list. Suffix list. The feminine.
  6. Lesson: Prepositions.
  7. Lesson: Adjectives. Degrees. The comparative. Superlative. Numerals. Other adjectives.
  8. Lesson: Conjunction. Interjections. Verb review.
  9. Doctor Zamenhoff:
    1. His exercise book..
    2. His Grammar
    3. Dictionaries :
      1. Esperanto-English
      2. Spanish-Esperanto

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    Tio estas la Kurso Baza de Esperanto España :-)



    LESSON 1

    Unua leciono

    Introduction.-

    This course was originally written in four sheets in Spanish, being its aim to provide an optimised sketch of the Esperanto Grammar. Nothing necessary to speak and write it correctly is missing in these lessons. However, besides this knowledge we will need a vocabulary of around one thousand words to be able to express everything we want in Esperanto. This will be achieved with Zamenhof's fundamental dictionary which he published in 1887 and which is also in this page.


    To go back to the menu, click here
    To go on with the Rules, click here.










    General Rules:
    1. In Esperanto, NO RULE HAS EXCEPTION.
    2. STRESS falls ALWAYS on the second-last sillable, that is to say, all Esperanto words are grave. That is why there is no graphical accent in Esperanto.
    3. Any word has AS MANY SYLLABLES as VOWELS there are in it.
    4. All letters are pronounced.
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      IMPORTANT REMARK.- In Esperanto we use all the letters in the English alphabet, and also some others which do not exist in it, and which are written or typed with a circunflex accent on the letters c, s, j, g and h to represent the sounds which in English are usually represented with the digraphs ch, sh, j or that do not exist in English. We will describe them in short.

      This problem is already solved in Windows and MacIntosh, but we must have installed the fonts LATIN3. If you have the file LATIN3.ZIP, you must unpack the fonts in it and install them in Windows. If you do not have them, click here to have them sent to you. Be patient, as the file is about 300 kbytes long!

      We have adapted this course specially for these type fonts, so you will need them so that your computer understands them correctly. If, in spite of all this, you see strange characteres, have in mind the convention Zamenhof himself suggested to represent those signs: ĝ= gh, ĉ=ch, ŝ= sh, ĵ= jh ĥ= hh, ŭ= semivowel u, and their corresponding capital letters: Ĝ= Gh Ĉ= Ch Ŝ= Sh ĵ= Jh ĥ= Hh and Semivowel Ŭ= U.

      Many people prefer using the letter x after these letters, so instead Ĉ they write Cx, substituting the other signs by gx, sx, hx, jx and ux, there being now computer programs which automatically change these characters, but the only advantage we see in this is that they also provide for the semivowel U, which Zamenhof left out. Anyway, I think the best is using a font which includes the Esperanto characters, because it is the samartest option, and it agrees with the foneticism of Esperanto (a character per sound, a sound per character).

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      The Alphabet

      A a, B b, C c, Ĉ ĉ, D d, E e, F f, G g, Ĝ ĝ, H h, Ĥ ĥ, I i, J j, Ĵ ĵ, K k, L l, M m, N n, O o, P p , R r, S s, Ŝ ŝ, T t, U u, Ŭ ŭ , V v, Z z.


      NOTICE.- Press HERE to stop the music so that you can hear the sounds of Esperanto. You need the program Purevoice, located at the address http://www.eudora.com/purevoice/pluginDL.html or at the Esperanto España compact disk.

      The reference sounds are contained in the following words:

      • a abelo
      • b bopatro
      • c celo, cigano
      • ĉ ĉielo
      • d Dio
      • e ekonomio
      • f falante
      • g geologio
      • ĝ ĝardeno
      • h hotelo
      • i indiano
      • j jako
      • ĵ ĵus
      • k kial, kajero
      • l leono
      • m miri
      • n noto
      • o operacio
      • p piedo
      • r rozo
      • s sistemo
      • ŝ ŝlosilo
      • t tiel
      • u ulo
      • v vetero
      • z zono
      • semivokaloj
      • ŭ aŭ
      • j jes

      This is an explanation of the peculiar sounds of Esperanto.

      SUMMARY:

      - VOWELS: a, e, i, o, u (as in star, bed, eel, saw, bull).
      - SEMIVOWELS: j pronounced as y in day
      ŭ pronounced as w in now or west.
      - CONSONANTS: THERE ARE NO DOUBLE CONSONANTS, so any two following one another are pronounced each.

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      PRONUNCIATION of the consonants not existing in English:

      CharacterExplanationExample
      c simultaneous t and s, as in "tse-tse fly". LECIONO (letsiono) = lesson, PACO (patso) = peace.
      ĉ: English ch . Ejs.: ĉevalo (chevalo) = horse; ĉeno (cheno) = chain.
      g always as in guest . generalo (gueneralo) = general; gitaro (guitaro) = guitar.
      ĝ J as in judge. aĝo (allo) = age; ĝardeno = garden.
      h as in he . Ejs.: haro = hair; havi = to have.
      ĥch as in Scottish Loch or German Ach. ĥoro = choir; meĥaniko = mechanic.
      j y as in yesterday or day juna (yooner) = young; jes (yes) =yes.
      ĵ s as in pleasure. French j as in jeter. Voiced sh. ĵaŭdo= Thursday. ĵus= just.
      ŝ sh as in she. ŝafo (ŝafo) = sheep, ŝi= she.
      Ŭsounds like English waŭ= or, malgraŭ= in spite of.
      We should care not to pronounce C in two strokes, t and s, since the sound of C is that of those letters AT THE SAME TIME. Do not confuse with ĉ!

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      THE ARTICLE

      1. Esperanto has just one article: LA (=the).
      2. There is no indefinite article ( it is understood by default).
        Ex.: La homo: the man; la patro: the father; la kolombo: the dove. Homo: a man; patro: a father ; kolombo: a dove.
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      PLURAL

      It is formed by adding a -j to the singular. Ex. homo~homoj, patro~patroj, kolombo~kolomboj, birdo~birdoj, kafo~kafoj, alta~altaj.

      Adjectives, unlike English take the plural, and they must agree with nouns. Examples: junaj homoj= young people; montoj malnovaj= old mountains.


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      Esperanto Spain: Kurso de Esperanto - 1996













      LESSON 2

      Dua leciono

      Stop the music and listen to me :-)

      WORD ENDINGS

      NOUNS IN -o ADJECTIVES IN -a ADVERBS IN -e
      noun adjective adverb noun adjective adverb
      patro patra patre filo fila file
      frato frata frate leono leona leone
      kristalo kristala kristale jaro jara jare
      monato monata monate semajno semajna semajne
      moderno moderna moderne lumo luma lume
      ŝuo ŝua ŝue okulo okula okule
      problemo problema probleme tago taga tage
      mateno matena matene vespero vespera vespere
      nokto nokta nokte Lundo Lunda Lunde
      Mardo Marda Marde Merkredo Merkredo Merkrede
      ĵaŭdo ĵaŭda ĵaŭde Vendredo Vendreda Vendrede
      Sabato Sabata Sabate Dimanĉo Dimanĉa Dimanĉe
      A difficult problem: knowing that okulo means eye, okula ocular, and okule ocularly, do you know the missing words in the following series?:
      lundo lunda lunde
      mardo____________
      merkredo____________
      ĵaŭdo____________
      vendredo____________
      sabato____________
      februaro____________
      klaso____________
      leciono____________
      Can you write the corresponding series in English?
      Do you mean you already know more Esperanto than English?


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      PERSONAL PRONOUNS
      NOMINATIVE ACUSATIVE DATIVE
      I mi me min to me al mi
      you vi to you vin for you al vi
      heli to him lin for him al li
      sheŝi to her ŝin for heral ŝi
      itĝi to it ĝin for it al ĝi
      weni to usnin for usal ni
      youvi to youvin for youal vi
      theyili to themilin for themal ili
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      Possessives

      They are formed adding -a to the respective personal pronoun:

      miA, viA, liA, ŝiA, ĝiA, niA, viA, iliA.

      Ex.: La kato de mia avo estas ruza (my granfather's cat is crafty).
      Via vivo ne ĉiam estis tiel malgaja (your life was not always so sad).
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      Esperanto Spain: Kurso de Esperanto - 1996















      LESSON 3
      Tria leciono

      Stop the music and listen to me :-)

      Verb endings
      infinitivepresentpastfutureconditionalimperativeEnglish
      -I -AS -IS -OS -US -UTo ---
      havi havas havis havos havus havuto Have
      esti estas estis estos estus estuto Be
      povi povas povis povos povus povuto Be Able to
      lavi lavas lavis lavos lavus lavuto Wash
      insulti insultas insultis insultos insultus insultuto Insult
      scii scias sciis scios scius sciuto Know
      fini finas finis finos finus finuto End
      vidi vidas vidis vidos vidus viduto See
      aŭdi aŭdas aŭdis aŭdos aŭdus aŭduto Hear
      dormi dormas dormis dormos dormus dormuto Sleep
      legi legas legis legos legus leguto Read
      salti saltas saltis saltos saltus saltuto Jump
      aŭskulti aŭskultas aŭskultis aŭskultos aŭskultus aŭskultuto Listen to
      lerni lernas lernis lernos lernus lernuto Learn
      manĝi manĝas manĝis manĝos manĝus manĝuto Eat

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      Esperanto Spain: Kurso de Esperanto - 1996








      COMPOUND TENSES ARE FORMED WITH THE VERB ESTI (=TO BE)

      Mi estas amanta= I am loving
      Mi estas aminta= I have loved
      Mi estas amonta= I am going to love

      Mi estis amanta= I was loving
      Mi estis aminta= I had loved
      Mi estis amonta= I was going to love

      Mi estos amanta= I will be loving
      Mi estos aminta= I will have loved
      Mi estos amonta= I will be going to love.

      Mi estas amata= I am loved.
      mi estas amita= I have been loved
      mi estas amota= I will be loved / I am going to be loved

      Mi estis amata= I was loved
      mi estis amita= I had been loved
      mi estis amota= I was going to be loved

      Mi estos amata= I will be loved
      mi estos amita= I will have been loved
      mi estos amota= I will be going to be loved


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      Esperanto Spain: Kurso de Esperanto - 1996








      LESSON 4
      Kvara leciono

      SIMPLE VOICES DIAGRAM

      § Quantity timecause moodplacekindthingpersonposse-
      ssive
      Pre/sufix OM AM AL EL E A O U ES
      Indefinite: i- IOM IAM IAL IEL IE IA IO IU IES
      Negati-
      ve: neni-
      NENI-
      OM
      NENI-
      AM
      NEN-
      IAL
      NENI-
      EL
      NEN-
      IE
      NEN-
      IA
      NEN-
      IO
      NEN-
      IU
      NENI-
      ES
      TODO:
      ĈI
      ĈIOM ĈIAM ĈIAL ĈIEL ĈIE ĈIA ĈIO ĈIU ĈIES
      Demos-
      trative:
      ti
      TIOM TIAM TIAL TIEL TIE TIA TIO TIU TIES
      ? :ki KION KIAM KIAL KIEL KIE KIA KIO KIU KIES
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      NUMBERS:

      1 Unu 2 du 3 tri 4 kvar 5 kvin 6 ses 7 sep 8 ok 9 naŭ 10 dek 11 dekunu 12 dekdu 13 dektri 14 dekkvar 15 dekkvin 16 dekses 17 deksep 18 dekok 19 deknaŭ

      20 DUDEK 30 TRIDEK 40 KVARDEK 50 KVINDEK 60 SESDEK 70 SEPDEK 80 OKDEK 90 NAŬDEK 100 CENT 1000 MIL 1.000.000 MILIONO 1.000.000.000 MILIARDO

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      ACUSATIVE

      The accusative or direct object is formed adding an -N to the word.

      Exs.: Antonio skribas LETERON= Anthony is writing a letter.

      Antonio legas bonajn librojn= Anthony reads good books.

      Jozefo faras cigarojn maldikajn sed longajn= Joseph makes thin but long cigarettes.

      Petro rigardas Johanon kaj Sofian= Peter is looking at John and Sophie.

      Li rekomendis al Rafaelo Petron=Peter recommended Rafael.

      Mi trovis la vinon bonan= I found the wine good.

      Bonan tagon!= Good morning! (because it is the complement in I wish you good morning!).

      The accusative is also used to show the place where you are going to (direction accusative), and in dates, measures, prizes and weight.


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      Esperanto Spain: Kurso de Esperanto - 1996




      LECCIóN 5Ş
      Kvina leciono

      WORD composition

      In Esperanto there are four kinds of words: simple, composed and derivative.
      1. SIMPLE: they consist of only one root. Exs.: ĉaso (pron. ĉaso) = hunt hundo= dog, homo = man, kapo = head.
      2. COMPOSED: they have two roots. Ejs.: ĉaŝundo (hunting dog), homkapo (human head).
      3. DERIVATIVE: they are formed by at least a root plus a suffix or prefix. Exs.: bofilo= son-in-law, vorteto= little word.

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      PREFFIX LIST:

      BO: it shows relation because of marriage. Ejs.: bopatro= father-in-law, bofrato= brother-in-law.
      DIS: separation. SEMI = to saw, DISSEMI= to spread; DONI= to give, DISDONI= to spread.
      EK: start something. LEGI= to read, EKLEGI= to start reading; EKVIDI= to glance.
      EKS: "ex", it was so. Ejs.: eksdirektoro, eksministro, eksprezidanto, eksedzo.
      GE: both sexes in one. GEPATROJ= father and mother, GEKNABOJ= boys and girls.
      MAL: the opposite to the root. Ejs.: SANA= healthy, MALSANA= ill, DIKA= fat, MALDIKA= thin; AMI= to love, MALAMI= to hate.
      PRA: far relatives, like great in English. Exs.: AVO= grandfather, PRAAVO= great-grandfather.
      RE: repetition. FARI= to do, REFARI= To do again. FRAPI= to strike, REFRAPI= to strike again;DIRI= to say, REDIRI= to repeat.
      FI: ethically objectionable: vorto= word, fivorto= cursing word.

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      SUFFIX LIST


      : it shows despisal. Domo= house, domaĉo= slob house; popolo= people, popolaĉo= mob.
      ad: continuous action. Parolo= word, parolado= speech; bato= strike, batado= beating.
      : something made of... Infano= child, infanaĵo= childish thing or action; sukero= sugar, sukeraĵo= a sweet.
      an: member of... Usono= The United States of America, usonano= American; klubo= club, klubano= a club member.
      ar: a set. Dento= diente, dentaro= (all your) teeth; Ŝtupo= stair, Ŝtuparo= stair case. Homo= man or woman, Homaro= Mankind.
      ebl: possible. Kredi= to believe, Kredebla= believable; legi= to read, legebla= readable.
      ec: abstract quality. Infaneco= childhood. Mola= soft, Moleco= softness. Amikeco= friendship.
      eg: augmentative. Pluvo= rain, Pluvego= deluge. Bona, bonega= extremely good.
      ej: place in which... Kafo= coffee, Kafejo= cafeteria, lerni= to learn, lernejo= school. Manĝejo= dining room.
      em: tendency. Kredi= believe, Kredema= gullible; Babili= to chat, Babilema= talkative.
      er: individual element. Fajro= fire, Fajrero= spark; sablero= sand speck. Monero.
      estr: boss. Urbo= city, Urbestro= city mayor. Ŝipo= ship, Ŝipestro= ship captain.
      et: diminutive. Glaso= glass, Glaseto= little glass. Rivero= river, Rivereto= brook. Piedeto.
      id: offspring. Rego= king, Regido= prince. Ĉevalo= horse, Ĉevalido= colt.
      ig: to make somebody of something do something. Pura= pure, clean, purigi= purify. Juna= young, junigi= to make younger. Morti= to die, Mortigi= to kill.
      : to become... Puriĝi= to clean oneself, juniĝi= to become younger; formi= to form, formiĝi= to form oneself.
      il: instrumento. Kudri= yo sew, Kudrilo= needle; Kombi= to comb, Kombilo= a comb.
      in: femenine. Hundino, patrino, ĉevalino, infanino, kolombino, onklino, birdino, katino, elefantino, leonino, tigrino.
      ind: worth +ing. Aminda= worth loving. Miri= ro admire, Mirinda= worth admire. Leginda= worth reading,
      ing= a thing in which something is introduced partially. Fingro= finger, Fingringo= thimble; piedo= foot, piedingo= stirrup. Glavo= sword, glavingo= sheath. Cigaringo= cigarette holder.
      ist= job, profession. Kuraci= to cure, Kuracisto= doctor. Dentisto, pianisto, instruisto, pentristo, okulisto, glavisto.
      uj= something which embodying something said by the root: . Supo= soup, Supujo= bowl; pomo= apple, pomujo= apple-tree. That is why this suffix is used to mean countries: Hispanujo, Francujo, Anglujo, Germanujo, Italujo, Rusujo, etc., are Spain, France, England, Germany, Italy, Russia, etc.
      ul: individual person characterised by this feature: Gibo= hump, Gibulo= hunchbacked; trinki= to drink, trinkulo= a drunkard.
      um: undetermined suffix, with ambiguous meaning. It is not very much used. Kolo= neck, Kolumo= collar; manumo= sleeve. Gustumi= to taste.


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      FEMININE

      It is formed by adding the suffix -IN to the root. Exs.:
      PATRINO, AVINO, FRATINO, LEONINO, DIREKTORINO, PROFESORINO, BOFRATINO, EDZINO, VIRINO, HUNDINO, KATINO (she-cat), etc.


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      Esperanto Spain: Kurso de Esperanto - 1996
















      LESSON 6
      Sesa leciono

      PREPOSITIONS:

      Al: to, towards. Ni iru al la arbaro= let's go to the forest.
      antaŭ: before, in front of, ago. Antaŭ la domo= in front of the house. Antaŭ tri tagoj= three days ago.
      anstataŭ: instead of. Anstataŭ ŝi, li iris tien= instead of him, she went there.
      apud: beside. Apud la domo= beside the house. Apudulo= neighbour.
      ĉe: in the house of. Ĉe vi= at your house. Ĉe mia patro= at my father's.
      ĉirkaŭ: around. Ĉirkaŭ la urbo= around the city.
      da: of, some (partitive, that is to say, it stablishes a part out of a whole). Glaso da vino= a glass of wine (the wine inside the glass). Kilo da viando= a kilogram of meat.
      de: of, for. Glaso de vino= glass for wine. De la patro: for the father.
      ekster: out of. Ekster la domo= out of the house.
      el: from. Tradukita el la japana= translated from the Japanese. Mi venas el Germanujo= I come from Germany.
      en: in, inside.Resti en la parko= to stay in the park.
      ĝis: as far as, till. Iri ĝis la parko= to go as far as the park. Ĝis morgaŭ= see you tomorrow (till tomorrow).
      inter: between, among. Inter ili estis negro= among them there was a blackman.
      kontraŭ: against, in front of. Kontraŭ la malamiko= against the enemy. Kontraŭ la domo= in front of the house.
      krom: besides, in addition to. Krom li, aliaj aplaŭdis= besides him, some others applauded.
      kun: con. Kafo kun lakto= café con leĉe. Ŝi iris kun mi.
      laŭ: según. Laŭ la reguloj de la ludo= según las reglas del juego.
      per: through, with, by means of. Ligi per ŝnuro= to tie with a rope.
      Peranto= deputy, commissioner.
      por: for, to. Lernolibroj por infanoj= study book for children.
      post: after, behind: Post la domo estas la arbaro= the forest is behind the house.
      preter: beyond. Li pasis preter mi= li stepped beyond me.
      pri: on, about. Diskuti pri gustoj= to discuss about tastes. Oni parolis pri vi= somebody talked about you, you were talked about.
      pro: because of. Li suferas multe pro sia kulpo= he is suffering a lot because of himself.
      sen: without. Agi sen pensi= to act without thinking. Sentaŭgulo= somebody good for nothin, stupid one. Senhelpa= helpless.
      sub: under, bellow. La kato kuris sub la lito= the cat ran under the bed.
      super: over. Superhomo= superman. La lampo estas super la tablo= the lamp is over the table.
      sur: on. Li forgesis la libron sur la tablo= he forgot the book on the table.
      tra: through. Ŝi naĝis tra la rivero= she swam through the river.
      trans: across. Ni naĝis tra la rivero= we swam across the river.


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      Esperanto Spain: Kurso de Esperanto - 1996


















      LESSON 7
      Sepa leciono

      ADJECTIVES:

      1. They always end with -a. They can be before OR AFTER the noun, unlike in English: La blanka rozo la rozo blanka, which means the white rose.
      2. It agrees with the noun in number and case (there is no gender for adjectives in Esperanto):
        Li pentris la belajn rozojn: he painted the beautiful roses. Note that also li pentris la rozojn belajn is also possible.

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        Degrees of adjective

        • Positive: blanka (white)
        • Comparative:
          • superiority:Pli blanka ol vi. (More white than you)
          • inferiority: Malpli blanka ol vi (less white than you).
          • equality: Tiel blanka kiel vi (so white as you).
        • Superlative
          • superiority: la plej blanka el ĉiuj (the most white of all).
          • inferiority: la malplej blanka el ili (the least white of them).
          • relative:
            • kiel eble plej blanka: the most white possible.
            • Kiel eble malplej blanka: the least white possible.

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        Adjectives in comparative degree
        POSITIVESuperiority comparativeInferiority comparativeEquality comparative
        bona pli bona ol vi malpli bona ol vi tiel bona kiel vi
        riĉa pli riĉa ol vi malpli riĉa ol vi tiel riĉa kiel vi
        granda pli granda ol vi malpli granda ol vi tiel granda kiel vi
        dolĉa pli dolĉa ol vi malpli dolĉa ol vi tiel dolĉa kiel vi
        bela pli bela ol vi malpli bela ol vi tiel bela kiel vi
        forta pli forta ol vi malpli forta ol vi tiel forta kiel vi
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        Adjectives in Superlative degree
        POSITIVESuperiority SUPERLATIVE InferiorityRelative
        bona La plej bona el ĉiuj La malplej bona el ili kiel eble plej bona
        riĉa La plej riĉa el ĉiuj La malplej riĉa el ili kiel eble plej riĉa
        granda La plej granda el ĉiuj La malplej granda el ili kiel eble plej granda
        lerta La plej lerta el ĉiuj La malplej lerta el ili kiel eble plej lerta
        inteligenta La plej inteligenta el ĉiuj La malplej inteligenta el ili kiel eble plej inteligenta
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        THE NUMERAL ADJECTIVES: Revise the cardinal numbers in lesson 4.

        1. ORDINALS: they are formed by adding -a to the cardinal numbers:
          dua (second), tria (third), kvara (fourth), etc.
        2. MULTIPLIED: they are formed by adding -OBL: CENTOBLO: hundredfold, DUOBLO: double, TRIOBLO: treble, KVAROBLO: four times, etc.
        3. FRACTIONARY: they are formed by adding -ONO: DUONO= half, TRIONO=

          third, KVARONO= fourth part, SESONO= a sixth, etc.

        4. COLECTIVE: they are formed by adding -OP: DUOPE= two by two, TRIOPE= three at the time, MILOPE= thousand by thousand, etc.
        5. DISTRIBUTIVE: PO is added before the number: Donu po tri pomoj= give them three apples each.

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        OTHER ADJECTIVES:

        We know already the regularadjectives, the numeral and possessive ones. Now we will see other kind of adjectives which are very useful:

        KELKA: some. Li uzis kelkajn ilojn= he used some tools.
        ALIA: other. Li uzis aliajn vortojn= he used other words.
        CETERA= remainder. Li legis la ceterajn librojn= he read the other (the remainder) books.
        TUTA: the whole. La tuto estas pli granda ol la parto: the whole is bigger than the part. (The adjective tuta has been converted into a noun. This is easier than in English, where to translate fiŝa(related to fish, that is to say, to fiŝo, we need ichthyologic, since fishing is related to to fish instead to the noun itself...) SAMA: same. Mi trovis la samajn ilojn= I found the same tools.
        MEM: -self . Estis mi mem kiu pafis lin= I shot him myself.


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        LESSON 8 Oka leciono

        CONJUNCTIONS:

        anstataŭ= instead of kaj cetere=etcaetera (and the rest)
        kaj tiel plu=etcaetera (and the rest) antaŭ ol=before, earlier than
        =or ke= that
        kondiĉe ke= provided that ĉar= because
        kontraŭe= unlike ĉiam kiam= as long as
        ĉu= whether, if (expressing doubt) kvankam= though
        ĉu ... ĉu= or ... or malgraŭ= in spite of
        do= for, since, so nek= nor
        ja= indeed (emphatic) por ke= so that
        jen= there's ____ (deictic), as in
        there's Paula!
        same kiel= the same as
        kaj= and se= if
        sed= butse nur= if only
        sekve= thereforetamen= sin embargo
        tial ke=for that, because ju pli ...des pli= the more... the less...
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        INTERJECTIONS:

        ha!= ha! hura!= hurra!
        ve!= alas! ho!= oh!
        fi!= augh! (disgust) brave!= bravo!
        antaŭen!= forward! helpon!= help!
        for!= away! he!= hey!
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        VERBS:

        SUBJUNTIVE: It is conjugated like the imperative.
        Ej.: ke mi estu= let me be.

        GERUND:

        aspekto PAST PRESENT FUTURE
        active: -inte ante -onte
        pasive: -ite -ate -ote

        PARTICIPLE:

        aspectPASADO PRESENTE FUTURO
        active: -inta -anta -onta
        pasiveita ata ota

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